The Earthquake and Cleavage

 

Description: Description: Collapsed and burned buildings shown at Beach and Divisadero in the Marina District, San Francisco.

Description: Description: Image showing a collapsed section of the Cypress viaduct of Interstate 880 in Oakland, from the Loma Prieta California, Earthquake October 17, 1989.

Images of the San Francisco earthquake of 1989

(from NASA)

 

Earthquakes and volcanoes occur because of the gases present inside the Earth, under high pressure. These gases issue from the fire that burns inside the core of the Earth. The gases rush but cannot find an exit, so the Earth surface will tremble and quake, and the severity of this quaking is related to the degree of that pressure. But when there are much liquefied materials in the core of the Earth, they will try to get out, and when the crust of the Earth yields, then the volcano will erupt.

 

The earthquake may be followed by a cleavage, so that an area of the earth at that site cleaves down. When the cleavage is deep, then the water-springs will emerge and will flood that cleavage (or depression); the water may increase in amount until it will cover all that area.

 

In ancient times, God be exalted destroyed many disbelieving nations by the earthquakes, cleavages and volcanoes, because of their disbelieving. Among those were Lots people whom God be exalted destroyed by earthquake and cleavage, so that their country became a lake due to the large amounts of water which covered that cleavage. The lake is still present nowadays; it is called the Dead Sea, or the Lake of Lots people, which is nowadays found in Palestine.

 

Among those disbelieving people also, were Salihs people and Shuaibs people, whom God be exalted destroyed by the earthquakes.

 

God be glorified said in the Quran 7: 77-78

.

I.e. (Then they [: Salihs people] hamstrung [and slaughtered] the female camel[1], and rebelled against the bidding of their Lord, and said: O Salih, bring us the [doom] which you threaten us with, if [truly] you are a messenger [sent by God.]

 

So the [earth] quake seized them, and in the morning they were fallen prostrate [: dead under the wreck] in their habitations.)

 

About Shuaibs people, God be exalted said in the Quran 7: 90-91

.

I.e. (The council of his people who disbelieved said [to those who believed]: "If you follow Shu'aib [in abandoning the idols], certainly you will be losers." So the earthquake seized them, and by morning they were [dead and] prostrate in their habitation.)  

 

In the present time, a large number of people have been destroyed by the earthquakes, cleavages and volcanoes.

 

Examples

(1) Spain was afflicted by earthquake at 1884, when seven hundred houses were destroyed in Granada, and more than 2000 persons died.

(2) Japan was afflicted by earthquake at 1891, so that more than 4000 houses were collapsed, and more than 8000 persons died.

(3) In the year 1894, water flooded some areas in Japan, because of the earthquake, and that led to the drowning of thousands of people.

(4) In the year 1902, Kashgar [and Andijani] of Turkestan was quaked, so that about three thousand persons died.

(5) In the year 1908, Messina defile in Italy was quaked so it was ruined. In addition to that, Messina in Sicily and Reggio in Italy were destroyed [by earthquake], causing the death of thousands of people, while other thousands became without shelter.

(6) A terrible earthquake occurred in Japan, on 3/ Sept. / 1923, which was a true disaster that afflicted the country, when the mountains were shaken, then the seas flooded and the houses were collapsed upon them. Finally, Yokohama city was ruined; and Tokyo the beautiful capital was burnt with fire. In Yokohama alone, more than one thousand persons were killed, other than those killed in Tokyo.

(7) The Ahram newspaper mentioned on Sunday, the 26th of July 1930, under the title of:

                         

The Earthquake Disaster of Italy

The news, received today from the earthquake areas, indicated the widespread effect of the disaster and its great damages; for the houses in 18 districts were destroyed: in the states (or communes) of Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Campobasso, Foggia, Napoli and Salerno.

 

There are 142 towns afflicted by much damage; the official news indicated that the number of those killed was about (1883), but unfortunately this number will increase as more corpses are being taken from under the wreck. This work is being carried out slowly, due to the large number of damaged and collapsed houses, and because of the bad condition of roads and transport in some areas. There are houses, severely damaged so that they are liable to fall down every now and then, as did it happen to the building of Melfi prison, from which the prisoners were transported to Foggia.

  

The Duke Drust and Duchess of Aosta arrived at Avellino to visit the afflicted places. The king, too, traveled yesterday from Cuneo, and crossed at afternoon by a special train the region of Foggia. After being acquainted about the recent news regarding the condition of the damaged districts, he continued his journey to Melfi. His visit was encouraging to the citizens there; and their meeting with him was so impressive.

  

The government will meet to discuss the essential measures to be undertaken in such circumstances.

         Rome, on 26th of July (From the special correspondent of the Ahram newspaper):    

 It is estimated according to the news coming from the areas ruined by the earthquake that 2142 individuals were killed and 4551 injured. The search must be carried on in the afflicted regions which they couldnt search because of the bad weather and because of the difficulty of communications; therefore, the final figures of the damage and casualties will be much greater than what has been already mentioned, and it still cannot be exactly estimated.

Till now, there is a large number of destroyed houses, in addition to more houses in need of wrecking. It is decided that those, escaping the earthquake, should not dwell in wood huts but in tents, to await for the reconstruction of their houses which were damaged by the earthquake.

         Rome, on 27th of July (From the special correspondent of the Ahram newspaper):

A new disaster has afflicted Italy, while still suffering from her calamity at Naples; for a violent storm has arisen at Milano, Venice and Treviso district; afflicting them with much damage. The number of victims in Treviso district alone was 22 and the injured were more than 100. The communications were disconnected between the afflicted and other areas. It is impossible to estimate the number of the casualties and the destroyed houses; actually, the damage which afflicted Milano and Venice was tremendous.

  

[The following incidents and observations are collected by the translator

8- Later on, many earthquakes happened, in different parts of the world, with destructive consequences on people, their houses and property; of these were:

   a- The coast of Chile in 1960. Casualties included about 5,700 killed and 3,000 injured, and property damage amounted to many million dollars.

Tsunamic sea waves excited by the earthquake caused death and destruction in Hawaii, Japan, and the Pacific coast of the United States.

   b- On March 27, 1964, a great earthquake with a magnitude of 8.38.5 on the scale of Richter (see below) occurred in southern part of central Alaska. It released energy about double that released by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and was felt on land over an area of almost 1,300,000 square kilometers. The death toll was only 131 because of the low density of the state's population, but the property damage was very high. The earthquake tilted an area of at least 120,000 square kilometers. Landmasses were thrust up locally as high as 25 meters to the east of a line extending northeastward from Kodiak Island through the western part of Prince William Sound. To the west, land sank as much as 2.5 meters. Extensive damage in coastal areas resulted from submarine landslides and tsunamis. Tsunami damage occurred as far away as Crescent City, Calif. The occurrence of tens of thousands of aftershocks indicates that the region of faulting extended about 1,000 kilometers.

   c- The coal-mining and industrial city of T'ang-shan, about 110 kilometers to the east of Peking, was almost deleted in the tragic earthquake of July 28, 1976. The death toll exceeded 240,000 persons, and probably some other 500,000 were injured. Most persons were killed during their sleep after the collapse of the houses that were not reinforced in construction.

   d- Mexico

The main shock occurred at 7:18 AM on Sept. 19, 1985. The cause was a fault slip along the Benioff zone (a band of intermediate- and deep-earthquake foci along a planar dipping zone) under the Pacific coast of Mexico. Although 400 kilometers from the epicenter, Mexico City suffered major building damage and more than 10,000 of its inhabitants were reportedly killed. The highest intensity was in the central city, which is founded on a former lake bed. The ground motion there measured five times that in the outlying districts, which have different soil foundations.

   e- There were successive earthquakes following just after the latest total eclipse of the sun. These earthquakes occurred in the same zone of the shadow of the total eclipse of the sun the translator.]

 

 

These incidents, we think, are sufficient examples of the great harm of earthquakes, whether to persons, buildings or cities. In this instance, we mention His saying be exalted in the Quran 16: 118

 

I.e. (We did not wrong them, but they were used to wrong their own selves.)

    

And God be exalted said in the Quran 11: 117

I.e. (Nor would your Lord [O Mohammed] destroy the cities unjustly when their people being reformers [acting righteously.])

 

 

 

Volcanoes

 

Description: Description: http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/82000/82287/etna_plumes_ground.jpg

Etna volcano in Italy

(from NASA)

 

Description: Description: Related image

Krakatau volcano in Indonesia

(from NASA)

 

The volcano erupts from a crack in the earth crust, which bursts so that the stones, molten lava, gases and liquids come out from it; these will collect on the earth surface to form a cone-shaped mountain, which is usually high, with a crater at its top; this crater reaches actually down to the core of the earth. There may be more than one crater for the volcano; e.g. Atna volcano has more than 80 craters.

  

The cause of the eruption of the volcano is the great heat present in the core of the earth; that heat which melts the materials, causes the evaporation of water, converts the solid into liquid and the liquid into vapors and gases, so that these substances will expand because of the heat, till they break the crust of the earth, and find an exit to emerge to the outside.

  

The liquid materials, gases and lava will be thrown from the core of the earth to a great height, then those vapors will convert into a heavy rain, which may become a great flood that overwhelms the country; as it once happened in Sicily.

  

When the volcano erupts, we hear a loud crepitating and crackling in the atmosphere and inside the earth, and some loud sounds like the thunder. Then big masses of stones will be thrown up, fire will inflame and people will be terrified.

 

The amounts of lava, ejected by the volcano eruption are beyond imagination; e.g.

(1)  The lava that came out from Tempo volcano in Java, in the year 1815 covered the sea surface within a circle with a diameter of about 200 miles. This is sufficient to cover all Italy with a layer of lava of about two and a half feet high.

(2)  Vesuvius volcano erupted in Italy, in the year 79 BC, so it covered the two cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

(3)   A volcano erupted also in Krakatau Island near Java, between it and Sumatra; it destroyed the entire island except a small remaining part. [More than 36,000 people were killed by the 1883 eruption of Krakatau, making it one of the deadliest volcanic disasters in history. Anka Krakatau erupted also at 1927, at 2001 http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/current_volcs/krakatau/krakatau.txt]

     

God be glorified said in the Quran 6: 65

I.e. (Say: He is the All-Able to send forth upon you, [associaters,] chastisement from above you or from under your feet, or to confuse you in sects and to make you suffer of the violence of one another. Behold [O Mohammed] how We turn about the revelations; haply that they may understand.)

  

The interpretation:

>> (to send forth upon you, [associaters,] chastisement from above you) means: meteorites, thunderbolts, meteors and comets; because these come from above.

>> (or from under your feet) means: the earthquake, the cleavage, the volcano and the drowning [in the flood]; because these come from under their feet.

>> (or to confuse you in sects and to make you suffer of the violence of one another); He means by that the dissension and hostility among them and wars; e.g. the two world wars which caused the death of millions of people.

 

(4) This is a story of a volcano which erupted in the year 1943, as described in the Readers Digest magazine, the Arabic edition, Jan. 1944:

 

 

Michoacán Volcano

[Paricutin Volcano]

 

Description: Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Paricutin_30_613.jpg/220px-Paricutin_30_613.jpg

 

1943 Parícutin Volcano eruption at night

(from the Wikipedia)

 

 

Dionisio Pulido is a freed slave farmer; he bought a small farm in the state of Michoacán, some 180 miles to the west of the New Mexico city.

 

Description: Description: State of Michoacán within Mexico

Michoacán State (where the Paricutin Volcano is situated),

one of the states of Mexico (from the Wikipedia)

  

On the Saturday afternoon of February 20, 1943, Dionisio had completed the plowing of his land and stopped to rest for a while. Suddenly, he saw a pillar of whitish smoke ascending from inside the middle of his land, twisting up like a snake, about 50-60 cubits from him.         

  

Many strange events were taking place the whole of that day; for early in the morning, the land quaked violently, then during cultivation he felt the soil more hot to his bare feet than usual, then after all came that strange smoke. But when he proceeded to see what it was, he heard a crackling, like the sound heard when the cork of a large bottle is unlocked.

  

Afterwards, that pillar of smoke became thicker and rose up in the sky, so Dionisio ran back amid the crops to take his wife. But Pulidos family never saw their land again; because while Dionisio was hurrying his astonished and worried wife to come, there came a violent earthquake that was recorded by the specific instruments at New York 2250 miles away.

  

Dionisio saw, after regaining his consciousness and getting up from under the wreck of his collapsed hut, he saw the cornfield burning while, out of it, big rocks and tons of soil were hurled out into the sky.

  

Pulidos family, then found their way with difficulty, through a land shaking under their feet towards the nearby Paricutin village, but they found it destroyed. The road was crowded with terrified people running for safety; blankets and sheets were mixed up with other clothes; the luggage were heaped on the carriages, while the priest was calling the strong men to rescue the statue. Paricutin village has never been veiled by night once again; because the volcano, which previously was the farm of Dionisio Pulido, by now, was lightening the area by its flame, in addition to the thick suffocating smoke of sulfur vapors.

 

The fire flames were rushing in the air, and large amounts of rocks, whitened by the severe heat, were continuously thrown up for one thousand feet in the air. Simultaneously, there were many violent explosions by which the earth quaked and trembled. The loud sound and noise was uninterrupted as if there were hundreds of guns simultaneously fired. This is according to the report of the official agencies.

  

The grey clouds of ash, fire and black particles reached the surfaces of houses at New Mexico city, some 180 miles away.

  

But following that was a very great terror; for in the third night, the volcano cone was cleft; it was a big hot mass like the red hyacinth (or ruby), and it delivered its first lava stream (i.e. molten rocks and metals); it got out boiling from the earth core, as if thousands of ovens, for melting iron, were burst altogether, swept away from the edges and flowed on the sides in a rushing stream of twenty feet depth, and two hundred feet breadth; it was gradually converting from very bright white to deep red, while it was flowing through the valley, carrying inevitable death to everything in its way.

  

Officers, geologists, reporters and photographers hastened to the afflicted valley to Dionisios farm over the lava crust which had, by that time, started to solidify, after covering the Paricutin village; they approached to the fire curtain surrounding the hell of that farm, and stayed there for many days, studying this strange event; that is the birth of the first volcano in the western hemisphere since the year 1795.

  

Following the birth of this volcano, its activity somewhat diminished in six periods; each period was followed by a violent explosion that terrified the remote villages. The sixth time was on 10th of June, when Paricutin - which is now the name of the volcano cut a new large cup, some hundred feet from the first cup, and it threw another stream of molten lava in another valley. The stream initially flew one thousand feet a day, but it enlarged, and one month later it enlarged furthermore, until the speed of its flowing lessened to not more than ten feet a day. These two valleys have now been buried under thick layers of lava, volcanic rocks and ash, while Paricutin volcano itself have become 1200 feet above the level of the plane from which it had erupted, and its width at its base is three quarters of a mile.  

  

When I flight to see the volcano, I observed the destruction caused by the volcano within a distance of 75 miles from it; the black ash now covers what were before some green valleys and viable mountainous sides; but now the gardens and farms are removed; the buildings and churches are buried; so that you cannot see anything other than few of their towers; and many water springs diminished and receded, while the Cupatitzio river became a river of slowly flowing mud.

  

Then you will see a huge pillar of smoke twisting as it ascends up from the cone of the volcano, which reached incredible height of 20000 feet.

  

Every four seconds are followed by throwing in the air of new amounts of smoke and tons of rocks roaring in the space; and a huge stream of red hot lava will erupt to reach a height of 1000 feet, then it pours down along the edge of the cone running in two tunnels. I closed the windows of the airplane to avoid the extreme heat and the rushing hot rocks, but that did not prevent the suffocating sulfur smoke (sulfur dioxide gas) from getting in, which will force you to cough. Actually, the rushing smoke, the rushing rocks (some of them being bigger than the airplane itself) and the flaming lava; all these will make you catch your breath from fear and terror, when the plane gets near to the volcano on its way to land.

  

We landed in Uruapan: some twenty miles from the volcano. This village has been covered by a thick layer of volcanic ash, which becomes a sticky emulsion when the rain falls down on it. There are many ceilings started to yield under the heaviness of the ash collecting over them, which is collecting more rapidly than the farmers capability to remove.

  

About 500 persons come daily to observe the volcano; they crowd in the Paricutin region, which has officially become a site of tourism. Buses ran to the Uruapan village, but its road specially the terminal ten miles is in continuous need for cleaning from the ash that covers it. Tourists will then go by car or on mules to the borders stated by the government to be the borders of a safety area around the volcano, about one mile from the circumference of its base.

  

At the periphery of this region, there is a village called San Juan Village, beyond which there is nothing save ash, lava, thunder and wilderness. The Mexican government is certainly convinced that the San Juan Village will, inevitably, be destroyed; they tried to encourage its inhabitants to leave it, but they refused, in spite of that they are obliged to struggle against the ash and dust day and night; because they gain large amounts of money, which they had never gained before. They gain this money by preparing for tourists the food, mules and horses, and by working as the guides and translators.

  

In the region of about one hundred square miles around the volcano, there is nothing green, even not any leaf or grass. Fifty miles away from the volcano, the viable plants have become dry, and nothing lives there except the resistant kinds of plant, like some trees.

  

The disaster damaged seven villages, while some others were harmed so that the plant dried in a land which once was very fertile; sparrows may fall still down from the air, and water may rarely be found because the water springs dried up or diminished.

  

The Minister of Relief sent a team of doctors, nurses and social workers to seek for eight thousand individuals whom the erupted volcano had driven away from their land.

  

The end has not come yet; for there isnt any indication that the activity of the Paricutin volcano is declining, but on the contrary, the violent eruptions are successively throwing large amounts of hot rocks in the air, which then fall down on the cone of the volcano, so that it becomes higher and higher, and the rate of its increase indicates that the substance erupting from its interior did not diminish ; because the lava is still rushing in the air, then it falls down and flows on its sides. Actually, at night, it looks like a fire-fall [compared to a water-fall.] The Mexicans say that the hell is still free.

  

So this is the story of this volcano, as it is mentioned in the Readers Digest magazine the Arabic edition.

 

 

 

Sun

 

Description: Description: Image result for nasa sun pictures 

An image of part of the Sun surface (from NASA)

 

Sun is a flaming spherical object, which rotates around itself from right to left, and completes its rotation within 25 days and 5 hours. They discovered its rotation from certain spots on its surface; for they saw these spots moving from right to left and after 25 days and 5 hours they reached their initial position. Therefore, they realized that the sun rotates around itself and completes its rotation within this time.

 

Astronomers estimated the volume of the Sun to be larger than the Earth by more than one million times, but it is contracting as time passes; its heat is gradually decreasing, and its surface is cooling down, so its volume has decreased; for it has become an old one, and its end has approached.[2]

  

And so on: whenever the life of certain planets comes to an end, they will be destroyed and another group of planets will be created instead of them.

  

The meteorites, too, will be destroyed and become minute particles scattered in the space, and the remaining of the meteorites will be pulled to the sun by the gravity.

 

In this way, the universe is going on: whenever a solar system is destroyed, another solar system will issue instead of the previous one.

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 81: 1      

I.e. (When the sun shall be divided into many spheres.)

 

The interpretation: It will be cut up and converted into many globes, i.e. spherical planets.   

 

[This also is the meaning of the word in the Arab poetry, some of which is mentioned by the late Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly, the interpreter of the Quran and the Bible, in his Arabic book.]   

 

[It means: when the sun is broken up into many spheres, Doomsday will take place.]

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 14: 48

I.e. (On the day [of Doom] when the earth shall be exchanged by another earth, and the [gaseous] heavens too [shall be exchanged by other gaseous heavens]; and [all] shall come forth unto God, the One, the Subduer.)

  

The earth, here, means all of the earths.

 

The interpretation: The day when the Earth, that has been destroyed and become planets, will be exchanged for another earth instead of the previous one, and this, in turn, will become planets also. That is: when the life of our Sun comes to an end, it will burst and become planets.

 

God be glorified said in the Quran 74: 26-30

. . . .

I.e. (I shall surely roast him in Saqar.

 

But do you know what Saqar is!? 

 

It does not leave [anyone in the space without drawing him towards it]; it does not spare [anything around it without burning it with its heat.]

                     

It is [nowadays] looming to mankind.

                     

Imposed upon it [the attraction of] nineteen [planets.])

 

It means: Saqar is the new sun, that appears after the explosion of our Sun, and it is Hell into which disbelievers will be punished and will suffer on Doomsday.

>> (It is [nowadays] looming to mankind.) It means: It looms to people nowadays, from faraway; means: People, today, see it in the form of a small star because it is far from them.

>> (Imposed upon it [the attraction of] nineteen [planets]) means: Upon it is the burden of the gravity of nineteen objects, because when our Sun will burst, it will become nineteen pieces which will be attracted by the gravity of Saqar.

 

God be highly exalted said also in the Quran 74: 35

I.e. ([That] surely [Saqar] is one of the greatest [suns.])

It means: Saqar is one of the large volume suns.

 

God be highly exalted said also in the Quran 87: 11-12

.

I.e. (But the most wretched [among the disobedient] shall flout the [admonition],

                      

He who shall broil in the great fire.) 

  

The great fire, here, is Saqar; because it is bigger than our present Sun.

 

Question 38 If we look at the Sun disc at sun-rise, we shall see it four times bigger that at noon-time. The same is observed at sun-set (also it appears bigger); what is the reason for that?

 

Answer: When the sun rises, its rays are horizontal to start with, and for this reason we see it bigger; because its rays are directed to the sky, then as the Earth rotates more, and the day proceeds on, the direction of its rays changes and becomes vertical on the Earth; therefore, we see it small. The same will explain its big size at the time of sunset.

 

The following is an experiment that proves what I say: Take a glass and fill it with water, then put a coin in its bottom, so if you look at the coin from the top of the glass, you will see it as it is; but if you look at it from the side of the glass, you will see it bigger; and on the same basis, we can explain the observation of the Sun at the time of sun-rise and sun-set.

 

Question 39 Why do we feel the heat of the sun at the time of sun-rise and sun-set to be less than other day times?

 

Answer: The same reason, which makes the sun to appear bigger at the time of the sun-rise and sun-set, is the same reason that makes us feel its heat to be less in these two periods of the day; because the sun rays are horizontal towards the sky; therefore, a small part of its heat reaches us; but at noon-time its rays are vertical towards the ground, and so we feel it more hot.

 

Question 40 Why is the heat from the sun in summer more severe, while it is little in winter time?

 

Answer: The reason for the first and second observations is the reason for the third one also; for the sun rays in summer are vertical towards the earth, so that the heat will be directed to the ground; but in winter they are horizontal, and the heat is directed to the sky, so that the earth will not obtain except a little amount of this heat; and for this reason the seasons are formed.

 

Question 41 You say that Sun is stationary, and that the Earth revolves around it, together with the rest of the planets; then what is the explanation of His saying be glorified in the Quran 36: 38

I.e. (And the sun it runs to a fixed resting place; such [perfection] is the ordaining of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing.)

  

Some saints (or imams) read this Quranic revelation another reading, which is:

...

I.e. (And the sun [goes on] running, and has no resting place )

  

The interpretation: It will not stop moving even if it breaks up; because in such instance, it will become planets, which will rotate around themselves and around the new sun, and no rest from moving will be for them even if their Doomsday takes place; because if they are broken up, they will become numerous meteorites, and there will be no rest from movement for the meteorites; because they will revolve around the planets until they will be completely destroyed and become dust particles in the space.

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 25: 76; describing the dwellers of Paradise:

I.e. (Abiding in [Paradise] forever. Happy indeed will it be [as] a settlement [in which to dwell] and [as] an abode [in which to reside.])

  

The interpretation: The   means the resting place, and the  means the abode or the place where they dwell.  I.e. they are happy in Paradise in their rest and their dwelling. So this is the meaning of (and has no resting place)

  

But if we consider the external or apparent meaning of this Quranic revelation, then it means that the sun revolves around a certain star which is stationary and bigger than it, so it attracts the sun by the gravity. This is His saying be exalted

i.e. (And the sun it runs to a fixed resting place) means: It moves and revolves around a stationary star which does not move, but it attracts the sun by the gravity.

  

Astronomers have discovered that the sun together with its satellites revolve around a stationary star, much bigger than it, which is situated in the Pleiades, around which it completes its revolution within a period of thirty years.

 

Question 42  What is meant by His saying be glorified in the Quran 18: 86

I.e. (Until when he reached at sun-set [time];

he found the [sun] setting under the observation of a black woman, and he found with her a people.)

I.e. (We said, O Zul-qarnain, you have either to punish [these people who worship the sun if they do not believe], or to show them kindness [if they believe.]")?

  

Answer: When Alexander of Macedon[3] reached the West, i.e. to Abyssinia, he found the citizens of that country worshipping the sun, so that they gathered outside the city at the time of sun-set, looked to the sun and sung their religious songs, and when it was about to set down and disappear from sight behind the horizon, they all would kneel down and worship the sun. They had a black queen in front of them, who led them in prayer, and they imitated her prayer to the sun.

 

The interpretation:

>> (Until when he) i.e. Alexander (reached)

>> (at sun-set [time]) means: He arrived, at that place, at the time of sun-set.

>> (he found the [sun] setting under the observation of a black woman) means: He found a black woman watching the sun, while it was setting. That woman was a queen; and her people were assembling with her.

  

The meaning: Alexander found a people worshipping the sun at its setting; they had a queen leading them in prayer to the sun; she was worshiping and kneeling down to the sun; and so were her people imitating her, and doing the same as was their queen doing.

 

In Arabic, the word  was misinterpreted as the water-spring; while, actually, it means the watching and observation; as is it mentioned in many instances in the Quran and in the Arab poetry. Examples:

(1) God be exalted said in the Quran 11: 37

I.e. (But build the Ark under Our observation and as We instruct you by revelation.)

 

(2) God be highly exalted - said in the Quran 54:14

I.e. (Which ran [upon the water,] in Our sight, as a reward for him that was rejected) i.e. under Our watching and observation.

 

(3) God be exalted said also in the Quran, 52: 48

I.e. (So forbear patiently to the commandment of your Lord: for surely you [Mohammed] are under Our observation. And celebrate the praises of your Lord, when you rise up [from sleep at morning.])

 

His saying be exalted  i.e. (for surely you [Mohammed] are under Our observation) means: under Our observation and watching.

  

 

[Now we continue the interpretation of the Quranic revelation 18: 87-88]

>> (and he found with her a people) means: Alexander found, with the black woman, a people doing exactly as was she doing, and imitating her in her worship.

>> (We said, O Zul-qarnain); this is the surname or the title of Alexander.

>> (you have either to punish) these people who are worshipping the sun, if they do not believe in God and resign or submit themselves to Him.

>> (or to show them kindness) if they believe and obey Our order.

  

Here, the in Arabic means the watching, and it does not mean the water-spring. The proof of this lies in His saying be exalted in the Quran 18: 91

I.e. (Until when he reached to the east, he found it rise upon a people for whom We made no shelter therefrom.)

  

So, if the  meant a water-spring, then God be glorified would say: he found it rise from a water-spring! But the meaning is: He found it set down for a people having such a description; and rise upon a people having such a description.

  

Therefore, God be exalted meant by that to describe the people, and not to describe the sun.

   

[This also is the meaning of the word in the Arab poetry, some of which is mentioned by the late Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly, the interpreter of the Quran and the Bible, in his Arabic book.]   

 

Question 43 Are there, in the space, suns other than our sun?

Answer: There is a large number of suns, but because of their far distances from us, we can only see them as stars. 

 

Question 44 Then there must be planets that revolve around them just as that our sun has its planets!

Answer: They have no planets, because they are not impregnated; and in the universe, there is no solar system other than our solar system, but when it will be destroyed, another solar system will issue instead of it, just like our sun, which appeared instead of the previous one.

    

Question 45 Is there any impregnation for suns?

Answer: The impregnation or pollination of the sun is by pulling to it an earthy piece, like a meteorite or some of the broken up moons and planets, then that swallowed piece will start to grow and get bigger and bigger, until that sun will become a solid object after being a gaseous one; because that piece will become as a nucleus for that sun, so that the particles of the sun substance will collect around it, until its substance will cool and it will become an earth that will burst and become planets.

  

Therefore, a sun which is not impregnated, will remain as a gaseous object like the rest of the stars; just like the flower which will not become a fruit unless after its impregnation or pollination.

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 51: 49

I.e. (And of everything have We created two spouses [male and female]; that you may reflect.)

 

The first (or the oldest) earth, that God be exalted created, was a small one; because it was impregnated or pollinated from the particles when it was a sun; and when its life ended, it was broken up, and was attracted by the gravity of the sun nearest to it, which, in turn, was impregnated by its rocks. The third sun drew, by its gravity, rocks from the first and second suns. The fourth sun obtained rocks from the second and the third; and in this way our Sun is the ninth sun.

  

Therefore, the oldest or the first earth was a small one; the second was bigger, because it pulled more rocks, while the third was still more bigger, and in this way, the earths get more and more in growth and increment, until our earth [i.e. the previous sun] became nine planets after its Doomsday and explosion; that is because of its big volume; because it pulled rocks and meteorites more than the previous suns. Our Sun will become nineteen planets when its life will end; and that is because of its large volume.

  

Then the succeeding sun will be bigger than our Sun. For this reason, God be celebrated His praise said in the Quran 74: 35, describing it:

I.e. ([That] surely [Saqar] is one of the greatest [suns.]) It means: It is one of the greatest suns in volume [and mass.]

  

God be exalted said in the Quran 2: 24

I.e. (But if you do it not [: you cannot bring about a soora like the Quran sooras, then ward off the fire by the belief and faith],

and you shall surely do it not,

then [believe and comply to Mohammed in order to] ward off the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for unbelievers.)

 

The interpretation:  

The Fire is one of the suns, which is also called Saqar, and it is that which will attract [the parts of] our Sun, after the explosion of the latter.

>> (whose fuel is men and stones) means: the rocks of meteorites; because the sun pulls them to it by its gravity.

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 66: 6

 

I.e. (O you who believe, protect yourselves and your families from a Fire, the fuel of which is men and stones;

on which are [appointed in charge, for the punishment of disbelievers], angels hard [- hearted: showing no mercy to disbelievers] and stern [in seizing and chastising],

who never disobey God in that He commands them, but they carry out [the chastisement with] which they are commanded.)

 

The stones means the rocks of meteorites.

 

Question 46 God be highly exalted said in the Quran 41: 37

I.e. (Prostrate not yourselves in adoration neither to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves in adoration to God Who created them [all], if [truly] Him [alone] you do worship.)

 

Then why did He be exalted say i.e. (created them [all]) in plural in Arabic, while they are two? [In Arabic there are three language forms of the name: singular, dual, and plural.]

 

Answer:

>> (Prostrate not yourselves in adoration neither to the sun nor to the moon) means the kind of the sun, and the kind of the moon. It means: Do not prostrate yourselves in adoration to any sun, nor to any moon. In fact, God be exalted mentioned each of the sun and the moon in singular; because the inhabitants of the Earth have only one moon and they see one sun only.

 

The interpretation of this Quranic revelation will be as follows:

Do not prostrate yourselves in adoration to the sun that you see, nor to the moon that you see, but worship God Who created all suns and moons, if indeed you worship and serve Him alone, and none besides Him.

 

 

 

Comets

 

Description: Description:     ‪comet hale-bopp nasa‬

Comet Hale Bop/ 1997(from NASA)

 

 

Comets are those known publicly as the Tailed Stars. They are some flaming fiery objects, floating in the space. Their origin is from the sun; i.e. they are sparks fallen out of the sun, then they started roaming in the space. Comets do not rotate around themselves as do hot spherical objects usually do, but they move roaming in the space; and they are oblong objects.

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 77: 32-34

. .

I.e. (It [: Hell] shoots sparks like the castle [in volume.]                      

As it might be the yellow thick ropes [of ships.]                 

Woe, on that day, to deniers [of the Judgment Day.])

  

The interpretation:

>> (It) means: Hell; and Hell is the sun,

>> (shoots sparks like the castle) means: the size of each one of these sparks which Hell throws out in the space is like the size of one of some large constructed palaces; and its sparks, actually, are the comets. For this reason God be exalted said  i.e. (As it might be the yellow thick ropes [of ships.]); i.e. like the yellow stays of ships. Originally it is in plural in Arabic; this is indicated by the form of its writing font in the Quran; this may be proved by His saying be exalted    i.e. sparks in plural, and He did not mention it in singular; this may also be proved by His saying  in plural, and He did not mention it in singular. The word  means the ropes of the ship; for God be exalted simulated the long tails of comets to the [long thick yellow] ropes of the ship.

 

Comets, in the Quran, are mentioned by the Arabic word  i.e. star;

 

God be glorified said in the Quran 86: 1-3   

. .

I.e. ([I swear] by the sky [of Nineveh] and [its] night visitant!                  

But can you imagine what such 'night visitant' was!? 

It was the comet with bright light.)

    

Moreover, God be glorified said in the Quran 56: 75

I.e. (But, no! I swear by the falling [sites] of comets [in the future.])

 

God means by that: the falling down of comets; and this is a threatening oath.

 

In addition, God be exalted said in the Quran 53: 1

.

I.e. ([I swear] by the [tailed] star [: the comet] when it will fall down [upon the earth!]                      

Your companion [Mohammed] has neither misled, nor deceived [anyone away from the right way.])

  

The meaning: By the comet when it falls down upon the Earth! The answer of the oath [or the main clause] is: 

(Your companion [Mohammed] has neither misled, nor has deceived [anyone away from the right way.])

 

God celebrated be His praise - said in the Quran 77: 8

I.e. (So when stars [: comets] will be immersed [in the earth.])

  

The interpretation: When comets are immersed inside the earth and will disappear inside it; because they will fall upon the earth when Doomsday gets very near; because the heat of the earth will finish, so it will be exposed to the falling of comets down upon it.

 

God be exalted said in the Quran 81: 15-16     

.

I.e. (But I [should] not swear by [the comets] that [now] slink [away from your sights!]                      

The moving along [: floating in the space], the swept [before Doomsday] into their dens [inside the earth!])

 

This means the comets; because, nowadays, they are invisible to our sight, and they are going to be swept to the earth just before Doomsday; i.e. they will resort to the earth, and hide inside it; and they are the moving along, which are moving today, roaming in the space, without any refuge or resort.

 

God be exalted destroyed many nations, of infidels and disbelievers, by the comets, and threatened Quraish, the tribe of Prophet Mohammed, by the falling of comets down upon the earth in the terminal time of the World [i.e. just before Doomsday.]   

  

Ancient nations knew about this fact, and were afraid of its occurrence; because they saw the comets by their own eyes, and their fathers told them about it.

 

The following is quoted from the Arabic edition of the Readers Digest magazine, no. 24, Aug. 1945:

 

The Day when the Comet struck the Earth Surface

  

Herbert Rafael Mass summarized from Sat. Evening Post magazine:

 

[A. The Comet of the Eastern American Beach] 

Description: Description: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/geomorphology/GEO_7/geo_images_KL-10/FigKL-10.2.jpeg

Aerial view of Carolina Bays

(from NASA)

 

Description: Description: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/geomorphology/GEO_7/geo_images_KL-10/MapKL-10.1.gif

A map showing the site of Carolina Bays

(from NASA)

 

Scientists believe that a huge fire ball struck the earth, some thousands of years ago. This, too, is possible to happen again.

  

Some people deny the idea of the comet completely; they try to attribute the craters, which are seen on the earth surface, in the plain of the eastern American beach, to some other possibilities. But large number of geologists, astronomers and astrogeologists think that the comet did come.

It came, as they believe, from the western-north, some thousands of years ago, when a big fire ball with a flaming tail appeared above the middle of Canada. When it was above the North Dakota and Minnesota States, it was larger than the full moon; but when crossing the sky of Illinois, it was a flaming terror in the space, while the hot compressed air was preceding it, eating away the trees of the forests as if they were match sticks.

  

The ball proceeded rapidly, burning the green plains of America, and melting away the rocks of the mountains. While it was rushing with a speed of 144 000 miles per hour, the gravitational force of the earth pulled it, so that it approached gradually to the earth surface until it struck it, between Virginia State and the middle of Georgia State, and it might have been immersed or dipped few miles inside the earth, which was quaked by its strike.

  

This comet was not a single hard mass of metal and rocks, but it was a group of meteorites; the volume of some of them was three or four times larger than the building of a palace. The entire group was nearly of a spherical shape with an area of at least about 400 miles.

  

Suppose that all guns and plane-bombs, which had been fired by people, were collectively and simultaneously fired, and then it might be equal in severity to that hell which that comet had burnt.

 

That comet killed the living beings so that none of them remained, except few, in a large area, which nowadays includes South and North Carolina States, Georgia, Eastern Tennessee, Kentucky and the southern part of Virginia States.

  

No doubt, that the affliction with this calamity was tremendous in an area of land larger than the first mentioned area; and it extended, in the north, to Quebec district in Canada; and in the south, to Kansas State. If a man sees such a great strike, then he may imagine, while dying, that it is Doomsday, and that the end of the world has come.

 

We can only imagine hearing and seeing that damage which would impair the hearing and confuse the sight: successive roaring of destructive thunder; rising up flames of fire and curtains of smoke and pebbles rushing in the air. But when that strange roaring would stop and the dust clouds clear away gradually, we would find the surface of the quaking earth wounded and burnt; where nothing remained alive and mobile on it, but only the pillars of smoke and vapors rising up from many large craters, in which the fragments of that comet settled there like fire brands; that comet whose life had ended.

  

If scientists are right in their hypothesis according to the available information, then surely that event was the most horrible calamity that had ever occurred, and its indicative signs are present upon the earth surface. What are these indicative marks?

  

They are thousands of craters, on the earth surface, which are oval-shaped pits, regularly arranged, in an area with a diameter of about eighty miles: from Virginia state to part of Georgia, and neighboring the Atlantic Ocean beach, about 20 - 40 miles away from it.

  

These depressed craters, called the Carolina Bays, remained unknown until a day came when an officer in a team for land surveying by the airplane, displayed to two scientists a collection of photographs.

  

The purpose of taking these photographs was to know the site of trees for cutting, but they made it clear that these depressions, which are similar to volcano craters, have parallel long axes and that their direction is from north-west to south-east, so that the sand, which was pushed by bombardments, collected edges at the south-eastern borders.

  

This was extremely strange, and made the two scientists: Dr. Frank A. Melton and Dr. William Schriever to visit that area at the first opportunity; and then, following a detailed research, they suggested the theory of the comet at 1933. Their valuable research was published in the Geology magazine, and it was a matter of conversation and dispute among the scientists of this century.

  

The deniers of the comet theory said that these bays might be formed from the effect of winds and water, or they might be some lakes which had dried up.

 

 

[B. The Comet of Tunguska in Siberia]

 

God be glorified said in the Quran 55: 6

I.e. (The stars [: the comets] and the trees fall down [on the earth in prostration.])

  

The falling down in prostration, here, is the obedience and falling down upon the Earth.

 

 

Description: Description: See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
 the highest resolution version available.

The trees in the Tunguska region fallen fan-shaped

(from NASA)

 

The reader may be astonished and may deny the idea of a comet that came roaring from the space, then it dug these bays; but consider that which happened to the farmer Semenov and the shepherd Lyuchetkan:   

 

The witness of Semenov, the farmer:

In the morning of June 30, 1908, at 7 am, while the farmer Semenov was sitting in the balcony of his house, in the northern parts of Middle Siberia; he suddenly saw in the north a flaming object with somewhat bluish coloration, larger than the sun disc, traversing the space, then it fell in the planes of Siberia, between the two rivers of Yenisey and Lena, so it ran in the space where a pillar of light fell.

  

In spite of that this light was about fifty miles away from his house, the heat was so extensive to let the farmer Semenov feel his clothes about to burn. After a while, he heard a violent explosion followed by a violent blast of air came that threw Semenov out of his balcony, so he fell unconscious, while his house collapsed.

 

The shepherd Lyuchetkan:

On the other hand, in the site of that strange light, the shepherd Lyuchetkan was driving to the pasture a herd of 1500 deer, and Lyuchetkans herd was stricken just before Semenov was stricken too by the same hot air; so that all the herd perished and nothing of it was found except few burnt bodies.

 

The Siberian Railways:

Four hundred miles away, the Siberia Railways men saw suddenly a glowing in the northern-east, then the train started to shake vigorously; therefore, they stopped it to avoid its deviation from the line.

 

The barometer findings:

At Irkutsk city, five hundred miles away, the barometer instrument recorded an air wave; while the sensitive barometer at Keo observatory in England, 4000 miles away, recorded waves in the air.

 

L. Kulik expedition:

Years passed by, and the event was nearly forgotten; but at 1927, Professor L. Kulik, leading a team of scientists, went to that remote district where the light pillar had risen in the air, where he found a depression, not very deep, extending over an area of two miles. In that depression, there was what indicated that something had violently pushed the sand to the edge of the depression, as if there was a big stone thrown into thick mud, and its successive rings were still visible to the eye.

 

Inside that depression, he found two hundred craters, the diameters of which vary from one to fifty cubits. Every tree within that depression was destroyed; and 15-20 miles around the depression, there were thousands of fallen trees, scattered from the center in a fan-shaped pattern. Evidently, a strong object had stricken the Earth in that center.  

 

Description: Description: Lake Cheko, Siberia

 

Lake Cheko in the Siberian region of Tunguska

 

 

Kulik found also that what had stricken the earth there was a group of meteorites, preceded by a wave of hot air, as if a mighty compressor had forced it forwards, so that it had dug that depression, and turned to break the trees of the forests as if the hand of a mighty giant had stricken them, so they fell down to the ground. This is the same wave that had stricken the herd of Lyuchetkan and all the living beings in that area.

 

Mankind were very lucky on that day of the year 1908; for if the comet had fallen on New York or Paris instead of falling on an uninhabited area, then that could have been one of the great disasters in the history.

 

Undoubtedly, that event was caused by a comet; for on the 30th of June 1908, the Earth globe was near to the orbit of the Pons-Winnecke comet [or some say it was Comet Encke.] It seems that the big comet that had fallen on Siberia was part of it

 

[C. The Comet of Arizona]

Description: Description: http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/StarChild/solar_system_level2/arizona_crater.gif

Arizona Crater

(from NASA)

 

Hopi, a Red Indian tribe, narrate a traditional tale that the Great Spirit descended, once, to the earth from his high settling-place, surrounded by fire and thunder, and it then entered the inside of the earth. Moreover, they will lead you to the pit into which that spirit entered; it is a large depression in Arizona desert about one mile wide, and 1300 feet deep, while its edge is 125-660 feet higher than the level of the surrounding place. So, there it struck the earth, somewhat less than five thousand years ago, that was another comet, bigger than the Siberia comet.

 

That comet was a mass of iron and nickel; its weight might be more than one million tons, and its speed might be 40 miles/ second, when it came down inclining over Utah and struck Arizona State. The description of its roaring and shaking might be very difficult, but that was strong enough to push it 2400 feet into the hard rock that was ground like a powder.

 

Some other small objects, falling upon the earth, which may be worth mentioning, are those like the Cape York comet; it weighs 36 Tons, which was brought by the Admiral Robert Peary, the discoverer of the North Pole.

 

It may be easy to understand about such [comets and meteorites], and that which happened at Arizona and Siberia; but it is difficult to imagine the disaster that quaked America, if it is right that the Carolina Bays were craters dug out by the large pieces of a broken up star or comet.

 

The comet which struck Arizona dug out a pit of one mile width; and the group of objects which struck Siberia dug out two hundred pits, the width of some of them was fifty cubits; but some of the Bays on the American beach have a width of two and a half miles, a length of three or four miles, and they are not many hundreds but many thousands in number, scattered over an area of about 40,000 square miles. Therefore, if the cause is the strike of a comet on the earth, then it will be a calamity that cannot be compared to what happened at Siberia and Arizona.

 

One day, I surveyed some of the gulfs in a region assigned by the Air Force as a military training center for bombardment; the bombs caused some pits, in the ground, of 40 feet width; these pits were not more than some moles over a land having many craters, the width of some of them was about 10 000 feet. In this great difference is a terrible example; for there may be, in the depth of the space beyond the stars, some mysterious powers that have become angry because of the conduct of this human being to destroy himself; and it may tell him, one day, O dwarf, leave all this. Now let Us teach you how the destruction and ruining can be!

 

This is what has been published in the magazine.

  

 

Question 47 What is meant by His saying be exalted in the Quran 86: 1-4

. . .

I.e. ([I swear] by the sky [of Nineveh] and [its] night visitant! 

                

But can you imagine what such 'night visitant' was!?

                

It was the comet with bright light.

                

There will not be [an angel] for every soul to guard it [when the punishment will come.])?

  

Answer:

The interpretation:

         ([I swear] by the sky): This is an oath by the sky, and it was the sky of Nineveh [: Mosul city in Iraq,]

         (and [its] night visitant!) means that which passes in a road at night; this is an oath by the thing that passed in the sky of Nineveh at night,

         (But can you imagine what such 'night visitant' was!?) This gives an idea about how dangerous was that thing.

         Then, God be celebrated His praise explained about that thing and said:    i.e. (It was the comet with bright light.)

 

[This also is the meaning of the words, of this Quranic revelation, in the Arab poetry, some of which is mentioned by the late Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly, the interpreter of the Quran and the Bible, in his Arabic book.]

  

   When the idolaters [of Mecca] heard this threatening with the chastisement, they said: The angels will protect us from the torment should it come on us; because we love and sanctify angels! Therefore, His saying be exalted in the Quran 86: 4 was revealed to Mohammed salam to him  

i.e. (There will not be [an angel] for every soul to guard it [when the punishment will come.])

  

The interpretation: Not every soul will have a protecting angel [: a guardian] to protect or guard him when the punishment or chastisement will take place, but the protecting [or guardian] angels are:

   [1] Special for believers; two angels for every believer after death to protect him from devils.

   [2] There are, also, protecting [angels], special for prophets, apostles and righteous guides; in the life of this World.

   [3] Moreover, some of the angels record the work of man during his life-time.

  

The story of this comet, which God be exalted mentioned in this soora (or chapter), is as follows: 

  

When Prophet Jonah invited his people [: the inhabitants of Nineveh] to believe [in God alone, and to abandon the association with God and the idolatry], they denied and refused to believe him, so he invoked God[s punishment for them], and promised them with the chastisement. Then God be exalted sent one of the comets which passed through their sky at night; but when they saw the comet, they believed in God alone, and supplicated Him; so He shifted that chastisement, and the comet fell down upon another district of the Earth.

  

So this is the meaning of His saying be exalted    

i.e. ([I swear] by the sky [of Nineveh] and [its] night visitant!)

  

This is a threatening oath, and the interpretation is: If you do not believe in My apostle Mohammed, I will send on you one of the comets, just as had I sent upon the people of Nineveh before you.

 

This is similar in meaning to His saying be exalted in the Quran 77: 16-18

. .

I.e. (Did We not destroy the ancients [who denied the messengers?]            

 

So shall We [destroy] after them the later [generations who will deny the Mahdi, i.e. the Paraclete, and the guides.]

 

As such shall We deal [in the future] with the guilty [among your nation, O Mohammed.])

 

 

 

Stars

 

Stars are fiery and flaming objects that are stationary in their sites [in the sky]; so they are called the fixed or 'stationary' [in comparison to the planets, which change their sites and so are called the wandering stars.]

But they rotate around themselves from right to left. The stars become suns when they obtain some meteorites and celestial rocks; because these rocks collect some of the substance of that star, and then that star will start growing and increasing until it will become a sun.

 

Stars are very big objects; but because of their far distances away from us, we see them small. They appear whitish in color while they are young, but when they become old and are converted into suns, their color becomes near to redness.

 

 

[The pairedness (or coupling) of stars]

 

Stars originate from a negative and a positive currents, which couple with each other forming a spiral nebula, which will grow and get bigger to become a star.

 

(1) God be exalted said in the Quran 36: 36

 

I.e. (Glory be to [God] Who created all [kinds and] pairs:

of the plant which the earth produces, and of themselves, and of what they know not!)

  

Therefore, some of that which they do not know its pairedness (or coupling) are the stars.

 

(2) God be exalted said also in the Quran 51: 49

I.e. (And of everything have We created two spouses [male and female]; that you may reflect.)

 

 

The Age of Stars

 

The age of stars is estimated from their color, so that the white and blue stars are relatively newly-formed; yellow stars are in their middle age, like our Sun; while red stars are old concerning their formation, and have attained their elderly. The older the star is, the more will its density be and vice versa.

 

 

A Rule for Cosmic Objects

 

I say that, for every moving object, there must be a rule that it follows, and it is not possible that the planets rotate around themselves without any rule or system.

The basis of their rotation around themselves is one of two possibilities:

(1) Either the object will be quicker in its rotation as much as it is bigger in size, while its movement will be slower if it is smaller in size.

(2) Or, on the contrary, the object will be slower if it is big, and quicker if it is small.

 

The movement of celestial objects is necessarily based on one of these two rules.

  

As regards the first rule; I say it does not correlate with celestial objects; because if it was right that every big object moves quickly, then we would find the sun, which is many times bigger than all the planets, we would find it complete its rotation around itself within one hour, and we would find that Mercury, which is the smallest of the planets, we would find it complete its rotation around itself within 25 days or more.

  

Therefore, we must refer to the second rule which says: The big object is slower in rotation around itself, and the small object is quicker.

 

[He means by the speed of movement the duration of the planet to complete its rotation around itself and the duration of the planet to complete its revolution around the Sun the translator.]

  

According to this rule, we find the movement of the planets, near to the Sun, logical; these are Mercury, Venus and Earth; for astronomers have precisely estimated their timing, and have known the duration of their rotation around themselves and their revolution around the Sun.

  

But astronomers have mistaken as regards the rotation and circling of the other planets; because they are far from the Sun. Now if we observe Mercury, we find the duration of its circling around the Sun is 88 days, and its rotation around itself is 8 hours [Comment by the translator that must be previously, but it has now stopped its axial rotation], and its size is one- third that of the Earth; and so it is the nearest planet to the Sun.

  

If we observe Venus, we shall find the duration of its orbiting around the Sun is 225 days, and its rotation around itself is 16 hours [Comment by the translator that must be previously, but it has now stopped its axial rotation], and its volume is two-thirds that of the Earth; i.e. it is two times bigger than Mercury; and so it is farther from the Sun than Mercury is.

  

Then if we observe the Earth, we shall find it bigger than Venus and farther from the Sun, and it completes its orbiting around the Sun in 365 days, and it spins around itself in 24 hours.

  

On this rule, the rest of the planets move in their rotation and revolution. If astronomers calculate contrary to this rule, we can realize that they are wrong in their calculations, and have not correctly calculated the duration of their spinning around themselves, and that they do not know precisely their volumes; because these planets are far away from us.

  

The proof of this lies in the fact that we see the Sun complete its rotation around itself in 25 days and 5 hours, while it is many times bigger than all the planets.

 

[Another factor is the heat of the object: as much as the object is hot, it will spin around itself faster, and as much as it is cold it will be slower in spinning around itself, until it will stop completely when its central heat will finish. This has been said by the interpreter in the past pages The translator.]

 

[The Wrong Calculations of Astronomers Concerning Mars]

Now, Mars is farther from Sun, than Earth is; and for this reason it completes its orbiting around the Sun in 687 days. Then how have astronomers estimated the duration of its rotation around itself in 24 hours, like that of the Earth? And how have they estimated its volume to be smaller than the Earth? And if its circling around the Sun is truly 687 days, then its volume must be about twice that of the Earth, and it must complete its rotation around itself within 44 hours.

In addition to that, if Mars were, really, a little bit smaller than the Earth, as they say, and that the duration of its rotation around itself were, really, 24 hours, then the two planets would approach each other, and they would even strike each other. If it were so, then we would see Mars just as do we see the Earth in its extent, or it would be neighboring the Earth and alongside it, so that we could easily cross to Mars from the Earth! Then how could it be like that, while we can only see it as one of the stars in the sky, due to its far distance from us?        

 

[The Wrong Calculations of Astronomers Concerning Jupiter]

 Description: Description: http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/jupiter_1_0.jpg

An image of Jupiter

(from NASA)

Similarly, they have made some mistakes in their calculations about Jupiter; for they say that it completes its rotation around itself in 10 hours, and that its volume is bigger than the Earth by 1250 times. I say that if Jupiter is farther from the Sun than Mars is, and that it completes its revolution around the Sun in 4333 days, then its volume must not be more than12 times that of the Earth, and the proof of that is that its year equals twelve of the years of the Earth, and it must complete its rotation around itself in 12 days.

On this basis, [celestial] objects have their speed of movement, and their distances away from the Sun: the big planet will be far away from the Sun, slow in its movement around itself and around the Sun; while the small object will be nearer to the Sun and quicker in its movement.

 

[He means by the speed of movement the duration of the planet to complete its rotation around itself The translator.]

 

 

The Day and the Night

 

We said that the Earth rotates around itself, and completes its rotation in 24 hours, and because of this rotation the day and night will result; because the side in front of the Sun will have day light, while the opposite side, that is not facing the Sun, will have night; because it does not receive sun-rays. And as long as the Earth will rotate, the day and night will succeed each other. This is something agreed upon by astronomers.

 

(1) God be exalted said in the Quran 31: 29

 

I.e. (Have you [Mohammed] not seen how God causes the night to pass into the day, and causes the day to pass into the night, and has subjected the sun and the moon [to do their function]; each moving [in its orbit] to an appointed term; and that God is All-Aware of what you [Muslims] do?)

  

The interpretation:

>> (God causes the night to pass into the day, and causes the day to pass into the night) means: He introduces the night into the day, while the night is still in the other side; and He introduces the day into the night, while the day is still in the other side; i.e. they succeed each other, so that in one side there is day, while in the other side there is night.

 

[A miracle of the Quran: the authentic word of God:]

(2) God be exalted said in the Quran 39: 5

 

I.e. (He created the heavens and the earth with the true [promise][4]; He makes the night spherical on the day, and makes the day spherical on the night; and He subjects the sun and the moon: each [of them] runs on [in continuous movement] for an appointed term; surely, [God] is the All-Mighty [in His kingdom], the All-Forgiving!)

 

The interpretation:

The word i.e. (makes spherical) means: to wrap; e.g. the dresser wrapped the bandage around the head of the wounded.

 

Now, dear reader, look carefully to the eloquence and clear language of the Quran. Look carefully and think how the Glorious God has declared the sphericity of the Earth, its rotation around itself, the transferring of sunrays upon it and the formation of the day and night, by His saying be exalted

i.e. (He makes the night spherical on the day.)

 

The Glorious God said i.e. (makes spherical) because the earth is spherical in shape, so the sunrays will spread on half of the sphere so that the day will be on its lightened side, while the night will be in the dark side, then the sunrays will transfer to the other side because of the rotation of the Earth, so that the position of the night will become day, and the position of the day will become night. Therefore, the sunrays get a spherical shape around the Earth, and give it light and heat, and the day and night will result from that.

 

Then again look carefully, dear reader, to this word and think about its meaning. Can any human being be able to give a synonym of it? Or can he express in such [few] words all this information and knowledge?

 

This word, alone, suffices as a proof of the truthfulness of Mohammed salam to him and a proof of the existence of a Creator for the universe; because the sphericity of the Earth was unknown to people until the present time [; the Quran was revealed more than 1400 years ago], and this knowledge and statement have not been discovered and become a reality except in these present days.

 

Celebrated be His praise! That Who created it, rotated it around its axis and caused the day and night because of its rotation. Celebrated be His praise, and be highly exalted He above what the worng-doers say.

 

(3) God be exalted said in the Quran 25: 45-46

.

I.e. (Havent you [man] considered [the acts of] your Lord: how He has kept on the shadow [of the earth, which is the night, continuous on successive zones of the earth: due to its axial rotation]?

Had He willed, He could have made it stationary [by stopping the earth from its axial rotation.]

Then We have made the sun [setting] a sign indicative of the [coming of the night.]

Then We have withdrawn [the shadow: the night] to Us [by the sun-rising on that zone of the earth c], with an easy withdrawal.)

  

The interpretation:

>> (Havent you [man] considered [the acts of] your Lord)

>> (how He has kept on the shadow.) It means: how He has made the shadow of the earth continuous, uninterrupted. The shadow of the earth is the night; whenever a shadow goes away, another shadow will come instead of that. That is due to the rotation of the earth around itself.

>> (Had He willed, He could have made it stationary [by stopping the earth from its axial rotation]) means: everlasting, not going away; and that will be when He will stop the earth from spinning; and in such instance, the shadow of the earth will be everlasting in one side, and the sun-light on the other side will too be everlasting.

 

At that time, your rivers will dry up, your trees will become dry, your farms will burn, your cattle will die and you will die from heat, starvation and thirst. While in the night side, no plant or animal may survive for you, and you will have no water except the ice; because of the severe coldness.

That will be the result of the everlasting sun, and this will be the result of the everlasting shadow.

>> (Then We have made the sun [setting] a sign indicative of the [coming of the night]) means: We have made the sun-set a sign for the coming of the earth shadow, i.e. the coming of the night.

>> (Then We have withdrawn [the shadow: the night] to Us [by the sun-rising on that zone of the earth]) means: We remove the shadow by transferring the sun-light from place to place.

>> (with an easy withdrawal) means: easy without any difficulty or trouble; due to the earth rotation around itself.

 

(4) This Quranic revelation is similar to His saying be glorified in the Quran 28: 71

I.e. (Say [O Mohammed, to them]: "What's your opinion: if God makes for you the night perpetual [without being succeeded by any day] till Doomsday, who is a god other than God who could bring you [day] light? Will you not [then] hear [the wind and the falling of the snow?]")

 

Question 48 You say that the earth is spherical, as it is indicated by His saying be exalted in the Quran 39: 5

I.e. (He makes the night spherical on the day, and makes the day spherical on the night);

 

Then what is the meaning of His saying be exalted in the Quran 2: 22

...

I.e. (Who made, for you, the earth covered [with an earthy layer suitable for cultivation and dwelling], and [made] the sky built [as gaseous layers packed one above another] )?

 

Answer: It means: He covered it by an earthy layer, in order that it would be suitable for planting and dwelling. This is similar to His saying be exalted in the Quran 51: 48

I.e. (And the earth We have covered it [with a layer of soil]; and how well We have prepared it [for you and for your plant!]) means: He covered the earth with an earthy layer, so that He prepared it for agriculture.

 

This Quranic revelation is confirmed by His saying be exalted in the Quran 20: 53

I.e. ("Who has appointed the earth to be prepared for you, and has threaded roads for you therein.)

 

It means: He made it prepared and suitable for the agriculture and dwelling; for He covered it with an earthy layer.

 

 

 

The Rain

 

[But mist came up from the earth, and watered the whole surface of the ground.

Book of Genesis, chapter 2: 6]

 

The origin of the rain is from the vapor; because sun-rays fall down on the earth, so that the water of seas and rivers evaporates by the sun heat; the vapor goes up in the sky, and the vapor particles convert into water particles because of the coldness of the atmosphere in the high altitudes, and with continuing of the influence of the coldness on these particles, they change into snow particles which remain scattered in the sky, but when some of the water vapor again goes up in the sky, and a hot wind comes to drive it under these snow particles scattered in the sky, then the heat of the wind and the vapor will melt away that snow, so it will fall down as rain.

 

(1) God be exalted said in the Quran 55:19-20

.

I.e. (The 'waves' of the two seas [: the White Mediterranean and the Red] meet together [in the future, through the Suez Canal.]1

 

Between the two [seas] is a [land] barrier they cannot transgress.)

 

The interpretation:

[1 This Quranic revelation was revealed to Prophet Mohammed - Salam to him about 1400 years before digging out the Suez Canal; this is one of the miracles of the Quran the translator.]

 i.e. the stirring and roughness, means to be rough and stormy and to have waves.

  

[a. It may be interpreted as follows:]

What emerges from the two seas will meet in the sky, and that is the water vapor, which comes out of the seas, because of the heat of the sun, then the wind comes to drive it, and will collect in the sky and become rain, which will fall down upon the earth. There is a barrier or partition, so that none of them will overcross to the other. The two seas are the sweet and salty water.

 

[b. It may also be interpreted as follows:]

There was a land partition or barrier between the Red Sea and the White Sea. Then they dug the Suez Canal, so the water of both seas met; this is one of the miracles of the Quran.

 

(2) God be exalted said in the Quran 7: 57

...

I.e. (It is He Who looses the winds bearing good-tidings before [the rain which is] His mercy,

till when they are charged with the heavy cloud, We drive it to a dead land1, and therewith send down, [from the sky, rain] water, and bring forth therewith all the fruits etc.)

  

The interpretation:

[1 i.e. a land having no plant.]

>> (and therewith send down, [from the sky, rain] water); it means: and, by means of the wind, We make the fall down of water; i.e. because of it; for it is a hot wind which melts away some of that snow so that it falls down as rain.

 

  Description: Description: Cumulonimbus Cloud over Africa

An image of the cumulonimbus cloud

(from NASA)

 

(3) And God be exalted said in the Quran 35: 9

I.e. (God is He Who looses the winds, and they stir up [and collect] clouds, which We drive to a desolate [: dead] land, and thereby We quicken the earth, after it is desolate [: dead] )

 

(4) God be exalted said also in the Quran 30: 48

 

I.e. (It is God Who looses the winds, which will stir up [and collect] clouds; which He spreads in the sky as He pleases, and makes them [many] pieces; and you [man] see the rain drops [close to the ground] issue out of the midst of the [clouds] etc.)

 

The   is the rain, which is nearby to the ground.

  

So God be exalted explained that the rain comes down from among the clouds; and it is not the cloud itself that comes down as rain; that is because the hot wind and the cloud will melt away some of the snow particles scattered high in the sky, so that they will fall down as rain, from among the cloud.

Description: Description: image of Altocumulus during Virginia Summer

An image of the Altocumulus Clouds

(from NASA)

 

(5) God be exalted said in the Quran 24: 43

I.e. (Have you [man] not seen how God [forms the clouds from seas, and] drives them [to you, people], then He compiles the [clouds], then makes them heaped [on each other], then you [man] see the rain issuing out of the midst of the [clouds and coming down to the ground?]

And He sends down from the sky: from mountains therein some hail, so that He smites with the [hail] whomever He wants [to destroy his crops], and [God] averts it from whomever He will; the flashing of its lightning is about to snatch away the sight [because of its extreme brightness in the darkness.])

  

Then look and contemplate that God be exalted said

i.e. (issuing out of the midst of the [clouds]); that is because the cloud will melt away some of that snow, and this latter will fall down as rain.

 

It is mentioned in the Old Testament, Genesis, chapter 2: 6

But mist came up from the earth, and watered the whole surface of the ground.

 

Question 49  If the rain is originally from vapor, then what are these frogs and minute fishes that, sometimes, fall down together with the rain?

Answer: These animals fall down with the rain; because the wind carries these animals, and they stay hanging in the clouds, and when the rain comes down, they also come down with it.

 

 

 

The Snow

 

The vapor, rising up from seas and rivers, changes into snow particles scattered high in the sky as we mentioned,

         then if that region is hot like India, Hijaz (in Saudi Arabia) and other hot regions, then the wind and the cloud rising up from the earth will melt away some of that snow into rain.

         But if that region is cold like Iran, Russia and other cold regions, then the snow after increasing and accumulating will fall down upon the ground in its snow-form, and it will not become rain; because there isnt any hot wind to melt it away except occasionally when it will then fall down as rain.

 

Sometimes the snow falls down upon the ground in some districts in profuse amounts, and it may accumulate to a level of about one meter or more above the surface of the earth. In those icy regions, people make the carriages [called the "sleighs"] that glide on the ice; so that they carry their luggage upon them, and use them also for sports (like the snow skiing) and playing. In some countries, they store some of that ice in the subterranean vaults and cover it with straw till summer time, when they take from it their daily need.

 

 

 

The Hailstone

 

Hailstones are formed from the snow scattered high in the sky, at winter time,

and also from the snow accumulated on the high mountains in the cold countries; that is when a stormy wind passes on these mountains, it carries by its way some of such snow to some other places. Then, by passing in the atmosphere, these snows will be rolled down to be in the form of small white balls, which will fall down together with the rain, and destroy the plant wherever they may fall.

 

This is indicated by the fact that we see the hailstone, when the air becomes somewhat hot; because the hot wind melts out some of this snow, and lift the other non-molten snow, which by passing again in the atmosphere will freeze once again, and will roll down in the form of small white ice balls, which are the hailstone.

 

If you break one of those ice balls and examine it carefully, you will see some of its particles transparent: these had molten out of the snow on its contact with the hot wind, then they have frozen.

You will see some other particles white and non-transparent, which are carried by the wind as they are and have not molten.    

 

This is indicated by His saying be exalted in the Quran 24: 43  

I.e. (And He sends down from the sky: from mountains therein some hail, so that He smites with the [hail] whomever He wants [to destroy his crops], and [God] averts it from whomever He will; the flashing of its lightning is about to snatch away the sight [because of its extreme brightness in the darkness.])

 

The interpretation:

         (And He sends down from the sky) i.e. And He sends down the hailstone from the air [which is the lower part of the atmosphere]     

         (from mountains therein ) i.e. in the sky of the Earth; they are mountains of clouds and snow. If you travel by airplane you will see many mountains spread in the space: they are only cloud mountains,

         ([some] hail) i.e. a little amount of hail is formed from these cloud mountains,

         (so that He smites with the [hail] whomever He wants [to destroy his crops],

         (and [God] averts it from whomever He will) to let his plants survive.

         (the flashing of its lightning) i.e. the lightning of the cloud; they are positive and negative electrical charges, from which the electrical sparks are formed which makes light at night,

         (is about to snatch away the sight); because of its extreme light and brightness in the darkness of night.

 

The hail is white solid small balls; poets liken the teeth of their beloved to the hail; [here, the interpreter of the Quran and the Bible mentioned some of the Arabic poetry as examples.]

 

Large hailstones destroy the plants [: the crops and fruits] and kill the cattle and man, and, in fact, they harmed a large number of people.

 

The following incidents are some examples of that:

 

It is mentioned in the Hurriyah Newspaper, issue no. 881 on 13/5/1953 [It was an Iraqi newspaper published at that time]:

"The hailstones fell on the city Nasiriyah in the south of Iraq, at about 7.50 am of the day of the blessed Feast of Breaking the Ramadan Fast [Barum Feast.] Each piece was, as large as a brick, weighed 160 g. Its falling down lasted 20 minutes. It perforated and pierced the ceilings making them like the sieve. Many were injured when these hailstones fell down upon them, for which they were admitted to hospital."

 

I have read once in an Egyptian magazine, about the fall down of some colored hail: red in some districts and black in some other regions. This indicates the mixing of the soil of the mountain with the hail that gave it such coloration.

 

 

 

The Tide

 

 

[The mistake of Astronomers about the tide]

 

Astronomers claim that the tide results from the gravitational force of Moon, which influences the sea water, so that there will be once rising in the water, and another time there will be falling.

 

I say that this theory is wrong, and there is no influence of Moon's gravitational force on the sea water. The indications of that are:

 (1) The gravitational force of Earth is more than fifty times stronger than that of Moon.

 (2) The core of Earth is hot and flaming, while the core of Moon is cold, and no heat inside it, and we know that the heat is the cause of the gravity.

 (3) The water is attracted to Earth because it is directly on its surface, whereas Moon is obviously far away from the water, then how could the Moon gravity have a stronger effect on the water than the Earth gravity; so that the first will pull the water of the seas and oceans, which actually are under the influence of the Earth gravity?

 

So Moon is far away from the seas and oceans, and its core is cold: with no heat inside it which might enable it to gravitate. And if there is any effect of Moon on the sea water, then the rain water should be more liable to be pulled by its gravity; because the rain water is nearer to Moon than the sea water is to Moon.

 

 

Diagram 7

 

Description: Description: tide and ebb2

 

The Tide and the Ebb

  

The true cause of the tide is the rotation of Earth around its inclining (oblique) axis; because the water inclines to the low place so that there will be some rising, while at the high place there will be some falling, then the water returns to its place when the Earth rotation is complete, where the low region will become high, and so the rising and falling interchange.

 

For this same reason, it is observed that some seas at the equator of the Earth have no tides. I can prove my opinion by the occurrence of the tide twice per day and not more; that is according to the rotation of the Earth; for it completes its rotation in 24 hours.

 

[The translator: There is a difference in the diameter of Earth at the equator from the diameter between the two poles, in addition to the inclination of the axis of the Earth of 23 degrees and the rotation of the Earth as explained by the interpreter in the past lines above.]

 

 

 

Springs

 

The water of springs is the water of the rain, which after falling down on the ground will [percolate] and run under the ground, until it will find an exit through which it will get out.

 

The origin of this water is from mountains. This occurs by two ways:

(1)  The rain water, falling down on the mountains, will percolate through cracks and pores, so that they will be filled by water, then it will find an exit from below the mountain, so it will get out as the springs.

(2)  The snow, that falls down on mountains in winter time, starts to melt away gradually, especially in summer time, so that the resulting water percolate in the pores and cracks of mountains, then it will find an exit from below the mountains in the form of springs.

  

God be glorified said in the Quran 39: 21

 

I.e. (Have you not seen that God sends down [rain] water from the sky, and causes it to percolate through the earth [then to come out] as water-springs,

and [God] afterwards produces thereby plant different in color, etc.)

  

It means: He caused the water to percolate through the earth, and made from it the water-springs.

 

Description: Description: The Water Cycle: Graphic showing the movement of water through the water cycle.

 

A diagram of the water cycle

[from NASA]

 

 

Hot Springs

 

The water is heated by the heat of the earth core, that is because of the presence of fissures and cracks in the stony land; so that fire and hot gases will leak out or penetrate through these fissures, and ascend up to the cold layer of the earth; and when the spring-water passes over it, it will become hot and spring out from that water-spring. Some of such hot springs may give forth a hot water with temperature that may reach 190 C. Some hot springs are present in the north of Iraq, near Mosul; it is called the Hammam Al- Aliel.

 

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[1] The female camel was the miracle of Prophet Salih. She drank their water for one whole day, and provided them next day with milk sufficient for all of them.

[2] It is narrated that Prophet Mohammed salam to him said that Hell will go on saying: Is there any more [of disbelievers and wrongdoers, to consume them; because it is very big] until the Lord of Glory and Might lets time and ages pass, after which it will shrink. The meaning: until long time elapses, so that it will be an old sun, then it will shrink and its surface will cool, and a crust will form.

 

The Sun is an attracting object for the planets and their satellites, i.e. the moons and the meteorites. All of these are called the Solar System. The sun is stationary (relative to the planets) while the planets circle around it. The sun originally was a star, then it pulled to it by the gravity some of the meteoritic rocks, so that it became a sun; because it started to grow and enlarge by the meteorites pulled to it by the gravity, i.e. it was a star then it became a sun.

  

Its life will come to an end, exactly as did the life of the previous suns finish*, when its light will decrease, and its surface will cool within a period of two thousand years, so that it will be an earth, then it will burst and become nineteen pieces, which will be attracted by the gravity to the nearest sun to them. Those pieces will become new planets, after the complete cooling of their surfaces, and those new planets will revolve around the new sun. Then God be exalted will create, on these planets, many living creatures, and they will be some inhabited earths just like our Earth.

..

* It is mentioned in the Gospel according to St. Matthew, chapter 24:

And immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun shall be darkened and the moon shall not give her light and the stars shall fall down from heaven and the powers of heaven shall be moved. [The exact word in the origin means: the power of heaven shall be disturbed or weakened.] It means: the gravity shall be weakened.

 

[3] He is Alexander the Great, who is called Zul-qarnain; i.e. the man with two horns; died at Babylon; learned under the instructions of Aristotle. He became the king of Macedonia after Philip, his father. He determined to conquer the Persian Empire, and he overcame them in Asia Minor at Apsos at 334 BC, then on the shores of Greece (after besieging it for seven months,) then at Egypt (where he founded Alexandria city.) Finally, he attacked Darius in Iraq and overcame him at Arbela, at 331 BC. Then he continued his march to the boundaries of Persia, and went farther to the banks of the Indus River.

 

Zul-qarnain was one of the bravest and greatest warriors and champions. Prophet Daniel foretold or prophesied about him, before his birth; that is in the Hebrew Bible [which is included in the Old Testament], Book of Daniel, chapter 8: that he saw [in a vision] a ram with two long horns, pressing with them against the west and against the north and against the south: and no beasts could withstand him nor be delivered of his hand: and he did according to his own will and become great. And for this reason, he was called Zul-qarnain, i.e. the man with two horns.

[4] i.e. with the true promise of destruction and ruining on Doomsday.